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2018年学*供给及需求PPT教材课件

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第三章 Supply and Demand (供給及需求) Market Participants (市場參與者) ? Over 290 million individual consumers . . . . . about 20 million business firms, . . . and tens of thousands of government agencies . . . . . . participate directly in the U.S. economy. 在台灣,2,300百萬消費者,數以萬計的公司, 以及中央及地方政府 2 Market Participants ? Millions of foreigners also participate by buying and selling goods in American markets.(國外的人參與市場活動) 3 Goals(目標) ? ? ? ? Consumers — maximize happiness or satisfaction from goods and services. Businesses — maximize profits. Government — maximize general welfare of society. 滿足最大的利潤,效用,以及社會福利 4 Constraints(限制) ? Limited resources ? ? ? ? Consumers need to make choices from available products. Producers must choose how to best use their limited resources. 消費者:從有限的資源中來選擇, 生產者:最有效的利用 5 Specialization and Exchange ? Specialization increases total output. ? ? It makes sense to do what you are best at and rely on others to fill in the gaps. 專業分工:生產自己最有利的產品,並據 以進行交換 6 Specialization and Exchange ? Why we participate in exchange: We are incapable of producing all that we desire. We have limited amount of time, energy, and resources. 7 Market Interactions (市場參與者的分類) ? Groups of Market Participants ? ? ? ? Consumers(消費者) Business firms(企業公司) Governments(政府) Foreigners(國外部門) 8 Market Interactions(市場關聯性) Foreign market participants Product markets Consumers Governments Business firms Foreign market participants Factor markets 9 The Two Markets ? Factor Market(生產因素市場) ? Any place where factors of production are bought and sold. Any place where finished goods and services (products) are bought and sold. ? Product Market(產品市場) ? 10 Product Market(產品市場) ? ? Consumers buy and producers sell in the product market. Imports and exports are also a part of the product market. 11 Product Market ? Governments supply goods and services in product markets. 12 Locating Markets(市場的定義) ? ? A market is anywhere an economic exchange occurs. A market exists wherever and whenever an exchange takes place. 13 Dollars and Exchange ? Some market transactions involve barter. ? Barter is the direct exchange of one good for another, without the use of money. 物以物的交易 ? 14 Dollars and Exchange ? ? The problem with barter is that you have to find a seller who wants whatever you are offering to barter. 找到相對應的人想要我要賣的東西的人 15 Dollars and Exchange ? Nearly every market transaction involves an exchange of dollars for goods (in


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